Westward Movement Notes

Points of View - Georgia Settler

a. Wanted to convert wilderness to farms and communities
b. Felt Spain used indians to terrorize settlers to maintain control of the coast
c. Cherokee and Creek Indians had sided with the British in war so distrusted their loyalty/honesty
d. Indians had great land in the Piedmont – good soil, trees, water
e. They distrusted the government – felt they valued indian rights over Georgians
f. They built forts and defended their own land ignoring gov’t. orders

Point of View - USA Government
a. Promised to work toward removing all Indians from Georgia
b. Persuaded the Indians to give up much of their land
c. Purchases Louisiana Purchase in 1803 at 4.5 cents an acre
d. Lewis and Clark expeditions with Sacajawea to the Pacific
e. War of 1812 – more battles between the Americans, British, and Indians
f. Influence of Andrew Jackson as president – “common man”
g. Jacksonian Democracy – all men created equal and entitled to equal opportunities

Andrew Jackson
a. General of the Tennessee Militia – War of 1812
b. Hero or madman out of control? (bigamist? Duels? Murderer?)
c. Runs for president in 1824 – lost;  1828 - won
d. Policy to move indians west on Federal gov.’t “dime”
e. Indian Removal Act – 1830 passed by Congress
f. Spoils System – “To the victor belongs the spoils” – got rid of people he didn’t like, put in cronies and supporters - rewards
g. political power shifts to the west
h. Believed social status and education not necessary to serve the nation
i. Common man, wealthy landowner, rise from humble beginnings

The War of 1812

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought on land in North America and at sea around the world between the US and Britian from 1812 to 1815.
Although the United States was officially at war with Great Britain, more than half of the British forces were made up of Canadian militia. Many Indians again fought on both sides.
The US declared war on Canada, but the borders were successfully defended by British and American Indian forces.
British invasions of American territory resulted in several battles. The Treaty of Ghent (ratified in 1815) restored the status quo ante bellum between the combatants and the war ended as a stalemate.
The little remembered war created a greater sense of nationalism in both Canada and the United States and marked the decline of a longstanding desire of many Americans to see the British Empire expelled from North America.
Peace between the United States and Britain also meant that American Indians could no longer use conflicts between the two powers to defend native lands against the expansion of white settlement.

Missouri Compromise:
1. Slavery would continue in the states that already were
declared slave states.
2. The territory granted to the indians would not be affected by the Compromise
3. Utah and New Mexico could decide the slavery issue for themselves.
4. California and all other states and territories would be free.

The Result:
1. Fighting occurred over whether they would be slave or
free – both sides wanted control.
2. Various groups spoke out against Lincoln and plots/ factions formed against him.
3. States start to secede from the Union.
4. Leads to The Civil War (AKA: war between the states, war of northern aggression)

1. What were the major sources of income in slave states?
agriculture and farming; cotton main crop

2. Why was slave labor desirable to the people living in those states?
It was sparsely populated and didn't have a labor force; it was free help; greatly benefited their economy

3. What was the major source of income in free states?
industry and manufacturing

4. How would slavery have been a threat to people living in those states?
Slaves would be willing to do the jobs for less; job security

1. Do you think the expression “to the victor belongs the spoils” should be taken literally?
 No, depending on the circumstances; in a contest only affecting you, sure; when it affects a whole country, like as president, no.

2. In your opinion, what would have been a good compromise between the settlers and indians?
Work with each other; learn each other's cultures; communication, no lying and trickery

3. What set Jackson apart from the previous presidents?
He was the first common man elected president; not an aristocrat or from a wealthy family

4. Why didn’t the government really seem to feel any responsibility toward slaves and indians?
They didn't seem them as citizens or having any rights; felt superior

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